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Senegal profile
westernmost country on the African continent;

The Gambia is almost an enclave within Senegal
Senegal history
The French colonies of Senegal and the French Sudan were merged in 1959 and granted their independence as the Mali Federation in 1960. The union broke up after only a few months. Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia in 1982. The envisaged integration of the two countries was never carried out, and the union was dissolved in 1989. The Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance (MFDC) has led a low-level separatist insurgency in southern Senegal since the 1980s, and several peace deals have failed to resolve the conflict. Nevertheless, Senegal remains one of the most stable democracies in Africa and has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping and regional mediation. Senegal was ruled by a Socialist Party for 40 years until Abdoulaye WADE was elected president in 2000. He was reelected in 2007 and during his two terms amended Senegal's constitution over a dozen times to increase executive power and to weaken the opposition. His decision to run for a third presidential term sparked a large public backlash that led to his defeat in a March 2012 runoff election with Macky SALL.
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Conventional long form: Republic of Senegal

Conventional short form: Senegal

Local long form: Republique du Senegal

Local short form: Senegal

Formerly known as: Senegambia (along with The Gambia), Mali Federation
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Senegal's capital city is Dakar
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Senegal Constitution:

adopted 7 January 2001;

amended many times
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Senegal population growth rate: 2.532%
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Senegal highest point: unnamed elevation southwest of Kedougou 581 m
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Senegal lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
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About 13% of Senegal's land is arable.
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Senegal River is the Longest River in Senegal
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Senegal birth rate is 36 births/1,000 population
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Senegal infant mortality rate is 55 deaths/1,000 live births
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Senegal fertility rate is 4.61 children born/woman
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Senegal climate:

tropical;

hot, humid;

rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds;

dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind
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Top 10 cities of Senegal with populations (2012 est.) are:
1. Dakar: 2,476,400
2. Grand Dakar: 2,352,057
3. Pikine: 874,062
4. Thiès: 252,320
5. Saint-Louis: 176,000
6. Kaolack: 172,305
7. Ziguinchor: 159,778
8. Tiébo: 100,289
9. Tambacounda: 78,800
10. Mbaké: 74,100
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Senegal ethnic groups:

Wolof - 43.3%
Pular - 23.8%
Serer - 14.7%
Jola - 3.7%
Mandinka - 3%
Soninke - 1.1%
European and Lebanese - 1%
other - 9.4%
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Senegal Exports:

fish
groundnuts (peanuts)
petroleum products
phosphates
cotton
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Senegal Imports:

food and beverages
capital goods
fuels
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unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (150 seats; 90 members elected by direct popular vote and 60 elected by proportional representation from party lists to serve five-year terms)

Administrative Divisions:
14 regions (regions, singular - region).
1. Dakar
2. Diourbel
3. Fatick
4. Kaffrine
5. Kaolack
6. Kedougou
7. Kolda
8. Louga
9. Matam
10. Saint-Louis
11. Sedhiou
12. Tambacounda
13. Thies
14. Ziguinchor
Political parties and leaders:
African Party of Independence - Majhemout DIOP
Alliance for the Republic-Yakaar - Macky SALL
Alliance of Forces of Progress (AFP) - Moustapha NIASSE
And-Jef/African Party for Democracy and Socialism (AJ/PADS) - Landing SAVANE
Benno Bokk Yakaar coaltion - Macky SALL
Benno Siggil Senegal (a coalition of opposition parties)
Bokk Giss Giss coalition - Pape DIOP
Citizen Movement for National Reform (MCRN-Bes Du Nakk)
Democratic League-Labor Party Movement (LD-MPT) - Dr. Abdoulaye BATHILY
Front for Socialism and Democracy/Benno Jubel (FSD/BJ) - Cheikh Abdoulaye Bamba DIEYE
Gainde Centrist Bloc (BGC) - Jean-Paul DIAS
Independence and Labor Party (PIT) - Amath DANSOKHO
Jef-Jel - Talla SYLLA
National Democratic Rally (RND) - Madior DIOUF
Party for Truth and Development (PVD) - Ahmadou Kara MBACKE
People's Labor Party (PTP) - El Hadji DIOUF
Reform Party (PR) - Abdourahim AGNE
Republican Movement for Socialism and Democracy (MRDS)
Rewmi Party - Idrissa SECK
Senegalese Democratic Party (PDS) - Abdoulaye WADE
Socialist Party (PS) - Ousmane Tanor DIENG
SOPI Coalition - Abdoulaye WADE (a coalition led by the PDS)
Synergy for Ethics and Transparency - Aminata TALL
Union for Democratic Renewal (URD) - Djibo Leyti KA